Lempérière & J.-P. Vigny (Hydrocoop – France) – June 2015
1. Combined Innovative Spillways associate Piano Keys Weirs and fuse plugs, allowing to benefit from the specific advantages of the two devices: those of the PK Weirs for the usual floods and those of the fuse plugs for the exceptional floods.
In comparison with a spillway including only Piano Keys Weirs, Combined Innovative Spillways make it possible:
– either to increase by 60% the maximum discharge without modifying the spillway length or the nappe depth,
– or to reduce by 40% the spillway length without modifying the discharge or the nappe depth,
– or to reduce by 1/3 the nappe depth without changing the spillway length or the discharge.
2. The here-below drawings present the general arrangement of the Combined Innovative Spillways. The figures are for examples below.
3. Two examples are here below presented for a spillway 50 m long associating concrete fuse plugs 3 m high with Piano Keys Weirs elements 3 m high with maximum walls height Pm = 2 m.
The first one includes 2/3 of the length of Piano Keys Weirs for 1/3 for fuse plugs which have all tilted for a nappe depth lower than 1 m. The table here below shows the order of magnitude of the corresponding maximum discharges to be compared with those of a spillway of same characteristics but including either 100 % of Piano Key Weir or a Creager wear.
Before tilting of the first plug, a nappe 0.85 m depth allows to discharge about 200 m3/sec, i.e. 40 % of the maximum discharge, percentage which represent for instance the 100 years flood.
Discharge for a 50 m length and 1 m nappe depth
|2/3 PKW and 1/3 Plugs||490 m3/sec|
|100 % PKW||300 m3/sec|
The second one includes 1/3 of the length of PK Weirs for 2/3 for fuse plugs which have all tilted for a nappe depth h = 2 m. The corresponding discharges are indicated in the table here below.
Before tilting of the first plug, a nappe 1.70 m depth allows to discharge about 330 m3/sec., i.e. 1/3 of the maximum discharge.
Discharge for a 50 m length and 2 m nappe depth
|1/3 PKW and 2/3 Plugs||1000 m3/sec|
|100 % PKW||610 m3/sec|
It appears that the increase versus a solution 100% Piano Key Weir is about 60%.
4. Similar results could be obtained using Fusegates or flap gates instead of fuseplugs.