Small dams are playing vital role for the life of local communities in sub-Saharan Africa providing water for irrigation livestock development, and building. These small reservoirs are overexploited due to the population growth and increasing economic activities. Due to sedimentation due to lack of soils and water conservancy measures in the watershed the loss of storage capacity for many of these reservoir are important.
A first phasis for improving Nile Waters availability is based on a very wide canal bypassing the Sudd associated with a Dam crossing the Nile at Bor. This favours an optimized management of Victoria and Aswan Lakes.
The major roles to be played by some of Africa’s large river systems in meeting water and energy needs throughout this century are discussed here. It can be seen that by the end of the century, low cost hydro generation or storage could meet most of the continent’s energy needs.